Hopes and Doubts related to Telemedicine Guidelines in the context of Data Protection

Author is Vineet Gupta, Volunteer Researcher, LawforIT. He is actively involved in a research on privacy policies of different leading online medical consultation platforms. Policy paper will be soon available on the Blog.


The Medical Council of India jointly with the NITI Aayog notified the Telemedicine guidelines in midst of the Coronavirus Pandemic. These guidelines can be seen as a first attempt in providing some amount of relief, in regards to legal gaps and anxieties around the practice of medicine by doctors via communication devices.

Although, historically (with the advent of technology) telemedicine has been widely performed in India, for long there has not been any type of legal mechanism for the same. From the introduction of the Communication channel by ISRO in 2001, linking Chennai’s Apollo Hospital with the Apollo Rural Hospital at Aragonda village in the Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh[i] and to the hundreds of apps providing for online consultation today, we have come up a long way. With the technological up-gradation and boom in the telecommunication sector, it was quite common for a patient to seek recommendations from their family doctors on calls, WhatsApp messages, and even video conferencing. Realizing the potential around telemedicine and its outreach, the internet was flooded with many startups acting as intermediaries that provided a channel between patients and doctors for online medical consultation.

On one side telemedicine was gaining popularity and on the other side, there was also a certain amount of anxiety, backlash, and confusion around the practice of telemedicine. With no proper guidelines among the practice of telemedicine, the doctors were kind of hesitant in providing online/telephonic consultations. They were also pressurized by the medical associations (some of which even declared telecommunication as unethical and practice of which can lead to cancelation of license)[ii]. The patients were hesitant to get telemedicine and a little reluctant to provide their sensitive information online to unknown doctors. They were scared as for long there was no telemedicine and data protection law in place. Most importantly many people, especially the rural population were, and are unaware of the potential of telemedicine and its application in this Technological era. The introductory part of the guideline’s states that:

“In India, till now there was no legislation or guidelines on the practice of telemedicine, through video, phone, Internet-based platforms (web/chat/apps, etc). The existing provisions under the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956, the Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics Regulation 2002), Drugs & Cosmetics Act, 1940 and Rules 1945, Clinical Establishment (Registration and Regulation) Act, 2010, the Information Technology Act, 2000 and the Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Rules 2011 primarily govern the practice of medicine and information technology. Gaps in legislation and the uncertainty of rules pose a risk for both the doctors and their patients.[iii]


The case of Deep Sanjeev Pawaskar and Anr. v. The state of Maharashtra[iv] was by the high court of Bombay a doctor provided advice to ailing patient online due to lack of unavailability of routine doctor and unfortunately, the patient died. The high court held the doctor as negligent for using telemedicine to treat the emergency. This case led to widespread criticism as the patient would have died irrespective, and telemedicine had no role to play. The above case triggered the need for new legislation, and the need for remote doctors in coronavirus pandemic led to the expeditious introduction of these much-awaited guidelines. These guidelines have opened a door to the future of telemedicine in India. While a lot has been discussed upon the salient features of this act, I will be strictly adhering to the examination the guidelines concerning personal data protection concerns.

Locating privacy under Telemedicine Guidelines

In the course of doctor-patient interaction, a significant amount of data exchange takes place from the side of the patient and the guidelines also makes it compulsory for the RMP to store and keep a record of all this electronic health record[v]. A Registered Medical Practitioner (RMP) is free to choose the mode of communication for providing telemedicine[vi]. The guidelines provide for various types of information related to health conditions which are needed to be provided by the patient to the RMP over telemedicine[vii]. Further, the guidelines provide for the maintenance of privacy as well as medical ethics following the Indian Medical Council act and rules[viii]. The guidelines also state that the RMP would have to follow and abide by various data protection laws such as the Information Technology Act and other data protection laws and rules (present as well as notified in future) which provides for the protection of patient’s data[ix]. The guidelines also highlight the breach of confidentiality by the doctors would be declared misconduct and will be penalized by IMC act, ethics, and other laws[x]. The doctors are exempted from charges in cases where there is reasonable evidence to believe that the breach is due to some technological error with no involvement of the RMP[xi].

Reading Telemedicine Guidelines with data privacy laws

Personal information and Data protection Rules 2011

It is quite clear that telemedicine guidelines would have to be read in conjuncture with data protection laws of the country to protect the privacy of the patients. After the judgment of K.S Putttuswamy v. Union of India[xii], privacy is well recognized as the part of the fundamental rights of the citizens. The data protection laws in India are governed by the Information Technology (Reasonable Security Practices and Procedures and Sensitive Personal Data or Information) Rules 2011 under the IT act. The judgment of Puttuswamy has led forth the Personal Data Protection Bill, 2019 which is in the process of getting passed by the parliament any time soon this year or the coming year[xiii]. The IT rules of 2011, as well as the new personal data protection bill, treats ‘Health Records’ as ‘sensitive personal data or information (SPDI)’. Under the IT acts data protection rules, when a corporate body deals with SPDI (collection, storage, transfer, or processing of SPDI) the data protection rules get activated. The data protection rule considers consent as an important requirement so a doctor or institution is required by law to obtain the consent of the patient in writing for use of any of his data[xiv]. There is also a restriction of sharing SPDI to the third party without the consent of the patient[xv]. The institution collecting such SPDI also has to put a policy in place and mention clearly on their websites[xvi]. A standard of procedure to store data has to be maintained as well as there should be a requirement of modification[xvii] and opt-out[xviii] their SPDI if the need arises.

Role of Intermediaries

There are many e-health apps which just act as a facilitator between the patient and the doctors and are not as such directly involved in the transaction[xix]. In these types of cases, such apps or companies will act as an intermediary and would be subjected guidelines of IT act specifically for the intermediaries. Such intermediaries have to initiate certain due diligence such as including terms of use, the appointment of grievance officer, and removal of offending/unlawful content within 36 hrs of request.

Telemedicine Guidelines: gaps are still needed to be filled to protect mass sensitive data

With the advent of Corona virus pandemic even a lot of state governments are actively involved in providing their own guidelines[xx] and facility of telemedicine[xxi] through their empaneled state government doctors or through Public private partnership Apps and facilities. Although telemedicine has opened a whole new legal world still there are various legal inadequacies in the Telemedicine sector which the present telemedicine guidelines, IT act, and rules do not properly address.

Firstly the telemedicine guidelines make no difference between ‘data fiduciary’ (person who stores, collect and process massive volume of important data) and ‘social media intermediary’ and also what if both are the same. For instance, many corporate hospitals (eg Apollo)[xxii] which have a wide range of medical business are also providing telemedicine. Some pharmaceutical companies (eg. Lybrate)[xxiii] are also in the business of telemedicine.

E-Pharmaceutical companies are already facing uncertainties in regards to online sale of drugs with central government coming out with Draft Rules 2018 to regulate e-pharma amending earlier Drug and cosmetic rules of 1945[xxiv]. These rules will also throw light on protecting data of patients seeking medicines online. But how will draft rules and telemedicine guidelines be able to regulate e-pharma companies who are even providing telemedicine is an area government needs to focus on since these types of companies have huge amount of sensitive data of patients and prone to misuse. Many of these apps even provide for their internal channels of communication for doctors and patients. While taking services from these sites there would be the transmission of the huge amount of electronic medical records to these companies. Since doctors belong to the same company or use a communication channel of the company who is acting as social media intermediary, then believing that data is not shared between them is being very optimistic.

Access to such a huge amount of ‘sensitive personal data’ to the hands of corporates without any supervision is troublesome. These data might be used to create an algorithm for targeted advertising, sharing with 3rd parties, and moving huge data outside the country. In such a scenario if there is any data breach who would be liable? is a question on which the guidelines are silent. And as the data protection law stands today, there is not much to offer.

So, we have to go through the pending data protection bill[xxv] to find some answers. In the Data protection bill two types of entities have a huge due diligence obligation in terms of dealing with personal data’s namely ‘significant data fiduciary’ and ‘social media intermediary’. Under the bill, the obligation which is associated with the significant data fiduciary (a person holding a huge amount of important data to be notified government) is extended to the social media intermediary(‘an intermediary who primarily or solely enables online interaction between two or more users and allows them to create, upload, share, disseminate, modify or access information using its services[xxvi]’). These significant data fiduciaries and social media intermediaries will be notified by the government.

In addition to provisions provided for significant data fiduciaries like maintenance of records[xxvii], data protection impact assessments[xxviii], an audit of policies[xxix], and appointment of a data protection officer[xxx], Social media intermediaries are obligated to put forth an option to the users (registering from India or using the services in India) for voluntary verification of their accounts. The provisions for ‘significant data fiduciary’ and ‘social media intermediary’ seems promising for companies dealing with electronic medical health records but whether these hospitals providing telemedicine would be notified under ‘significant data fiduciary’ or the e-health apps storing huge amount of data as ‘social media intermediaries’ is a question of time as the bill is still pending.

Parting note

The telemedicine guidelines are a huge breakthrough in the field of medical sciences. The guidelines have tried to address a huge amount of anxieties and uncertainties about the practice of telemedicine but in the context of data protection, the guidelines sadly have not much to offer. The guidelines have to be read along with data protection laws of the country and as the data protection laws of the country currently stand there is not enough impact to ensure the protection of sensitive patient data from the hands of big hospitals doing telemedicine themselves and e-health apps acting as an intermediary for telemedicine. The new data protection bill, 2019 if passed as it is, it would address a lot of these gaps provided the government notifies these hospitals and e-health apps as significant data fiduciary and social media intermediaries respectively. Another pending bill such as Digital Information Security in Healthcare Act (DISHA), a regulatory platform for sharing digital records among hospitals and will be based on setting digital health records in the country[xxxi].  DISHA  will be clubbed with Personal data protection bill along with telemedicine guidelines would be something to look forward.

[i] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6618173/

[ii] https://medicaldialogues.in/indian-medical-association-seeks-clear-cut-guidelines-on-telemedication-from-medical-council-of-india

[iii] https://www.mohfw.gov.in/pdf/Telemedicine.pdf

[iv] Criminal Anticipatory Bail Application No. 513 OF 2018

[v] Telemedicine guidelines 2020, section 3.7.2

[vi] Telemedicine guidelines 2020, section 1.4.1

[vii] Telemedicine guidelines 2020, section 3.5

[viii] Telemedicine guidelines 2020, section 3.7.1

[ix] Id

[x] Id

[xi] id

[xii] 2017 10 SCC 1

[xiii] https://prsindia.org/billtrack/personal-data-protection-bill-2019

[xiv] Rule 5(1) of the Data Protection Rules

[xv] Rule 7 of the Data Protection Rules

[xvi] Rule 4(1) of the Data Protection Rules

[xvii] Rule 5(7) of the Data Protection Rules

[xviii] Id

[xix] https://www.dr-hempel-network.com/digital-health-startups/doctor-patient-platforms-in-india-success/

[xx] See Maharastra: https://www.maharashtramedicalcouncil.in/Files/Notifications_26032020_MCI%20Notification%20Regarding%20TELEMEDICINE.pdf, See Karnataka: https://www.mondaq.com/india/healthcare/905172/karnataka-government-notificationregulations-on-covid-19

[xxi] See kerela: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/industry/healthcare/biotech/healthcare/kerala-govt to-use-telemedicine-service-e-sanjeevani-for-non-covid-patient-care/articleshow/76370573.cms?from=mdr,

See Westbengal : https://www.newindianexpress.com/nation/2020/jun/30/west-bengal-sets-up-covid-warrior-club-to-help-contain-pandemic-2163150.html, See Tamil Nadu: https://tsitn.org/telemedicine-facilities-in-tamil-nadu/, See Karnatka: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/karnataka-govt-launches-apthamitra-helpline-and-app-to-fight-covid 19/articleshow/75293952.cms?from=mdr, See Delhi: https://www.newindianexpress.com/cities/delhi/2020/jul/04/aap-launches-district-surveillance-telemedicine-hub-to-help-with-covid-19-requirements-2165260.html, See Rajasthan: https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/jaipur/rajasthan-government-starts-free-medical-tele-consultation-service/articleshow/75540116.cms

[xxii] id

[xxiii] id

[xxiv] https://www.mondaq.com/india/food-and-drugs-law/865476/regulations-for-online-sale-of-medicines and-drugs-in india#:~:text=India%3A%20Regulations%20For%20Online%20Sale%20Of%20Medicines%20And%20Drugs%20In%20India&text=The%20draft%20rules%20prescribe%20that,registered%20with%20the%20applicable%20authority.

[xxv] Supra

[xxvi] Section 26 (4) Private Data protection bill, 2019

[xxvii] Section 28 Private Data protection bill, 2019

[xxviii] Section 27 Private Data protection bill, 2019

[xxix] Section 29 Private Data protection bill, 2019

[xxx] Section 30 Private Data protection bill, 2019

[xxxi] https://pib.gov.in/Pressreleaseshare.aspx?PRID=1578929

COVID-19 crisis is changing Tech related Law and Policy: Surveillance, Fake news, Telemedicine, and Internet

As I view things and events around the world from the comfort of my home, this blog is my take on how regulations related to technology will get impacted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. As they say, sudden and unexpected events often lead to systematic and permanent changes.  Work from home is a mandate now, as the fear of personal contact and surface contact is prevalent, everyone has uncertainty about the impact of infection. There are even doubts on the globalization given the infection is spreading from one corner of the world to another.

Given the fact that COVID-19 is a pandemic, the authorities have commanded us to practice ‘social distancing’ (trending buzz word on social media) under the twenty-one days lockdown. Hence, there is an unwillingness to engage socially among masses now. As there are shifts in perceiving the world now, there is a shift in the understanding of technology as well. Governments around the world are now valuing its role more than ever and understanding the need for the well-drafted technology policy, as they rush to contain the spread of COVID-19.

Following are the potential changes that we can see in the technology policy of India during and after the COVID-19 crisis.

Increase in the adoption of internet services

With the reach of the internet increasing up to 500 million users and over 660 million broadband subscriptions, internet penetration in India is much evident. However, the present situation is proof that it has been a boon for us that Jio entered the market and made the internet more accessible than ever. The internet is an essential service and something that has kept the masses engaged and sane in their homes during the nationwide lockdown. India has the cheapest internet access in the world, but still, as the crisis gets over, the government will definitely consider more options of making internet services more accessible to the poor of the country which is largely suffering in this crisis. In the present lockdown state, it is important to mention the situation that exists in Kashmir where just the 2G internet is available with the speed which is good for nothing.

India has the cheapest mobile data in the world with 1GB costing just Rs 18.5 (USD 0.26) as compared to the global average of about Rs 600, research by price comparison site Cable.co.uk showed. Average Wireless Data Usage per wireless data subscriber per month is 10.37 GB.

Work from Home

Zoom, a video-meeting app, has seen a significant rise in its download over the last week. With employees are unable to attend offices, video conferencing services that work over the internet has become significant. Again, such applications make access to internet an essential service for operating the business online (a fundamental right). As the employment laws are being discussed these days to understand the place of Work from Home in the law, post the crisis policymakers will definitely deliberate on this and provide a permanent solution for it.

Certain important points for reference of readers from the advisory issued by the government in relation employment laws:

The Ministry of Labour & Employment, Government of India advised on March 20, 2020, that all public and private organizations are to refrain from terminating the services of their employees or reducing their wages.

The Ministry of Labour & Employment has extended the deadline for filing the Unified Annual Return for 2019 under eight laws that were filed on the Shram Suvidha Portal to April 30, 2020 (the previous deadline was February 1, 2020). The notification further states that authorities are not to take action against any entity that did not meet the earlier deadline.

The Employees’ State Insurance Corporation (ESIC), through its communication dated March 16, 2020, has extended the dates for filing of ESI contribution and payment. Accordingly, all contributions for the months of February 2020 and March 2020 can be filed and paid up to April 15, 2020 and May 15, 2020, instead of March 15, 2020 and April 15, 2020, respectively.

The Government of India will contribute the employer contribution (on behalf of companies) and employee contribution (on behalf of employees of those companies) towards the Employee Provident Fund Organization (EPFO) for the next three months for establishments with up to 100 employees meeting certain base salary thresholds.

All EPFO members (employees) will now be able to withdraw up to 75 percent of their total EPFO fund or an amount equivalent to three months of their salary, whichever is lower. The amount withdrawn from EPFO shall be non-refundable, and the employees do not need to return the same to their EPFO account.

Streaming services and regulations

In the process of home quarantine, the dependence on the streaming services is so much that the internet service providers have asked streaming platforms like Netflix and Amazon Prime to reduce the bits rate, in order to lower the stress on networks. The streaming platforms have duly conceded to this demand considering the continuous requirement of providing services to consumers. Consumers are realizing the benefits of streaming platforms and hence there is going to be a potential increase in subscriptions going forward, converting to paying users. In terms of policy-making, if streaming services have the potential to displace traditional entertainment services, the Indian government will look for regulating the content more than ever. Government is already in consultation with the stakeholders regarding options of self-regulation or government regulation.

Increase in demand for spectrum to meet the consumer demand

The percentage of connections that are based on a wireless medium is a staggering 96% approx. Therefore, in the light of increased adoption of the internet for continuous entertainment and work at home has led to increased stress on telecom operators. Therefore, with the 20% sudden increase in demand, telecom operators have sought more spectrum allotment from the government.

A new perspective for e-commerce

The government has rightly considered E-commerce as the provider of essential services during the present situation. Their adequate performance under the lockdown can provide them with a deep sigh of relief, as for the past few months, their food and grocery delivery services have been under the strict supervision of the government. There are several lobbies representing the brick and mortar retailers of groceries and food that have targeted e-commerce market and posed it as a threat to the business of offline retailers across the country. The opportunity for them to legitimize the need for online service during the lockdown has done what demonetisation did for digital payments.

Offline print becomes the victim

Online media channels are also opportunists that are gaining certain traction in terms of consumers. The newspaper industry seems to have been hurt by contact to contact the spreading nature of the COVID-19. Various online posts and WhatsApp threads are flowing in the online media that newspapers are potential vectors of COVID-19. In one of the cases, the Times Group has sent a legal notice to The Print for an article which suggested that COVID-19 can potentially spread through newspapers as well. Therefore, there could be a rise in online media usage and could lead to a rift between offline and online media.

A struggle to contain fake news or misinformation

The sensational way in which COVID-19 crisis has led to the nationwide lockdown is much due to the sensationalized content related to COVID-19 which is spreading through the social media across the country faster than the virus itself. The amount of misinformation spreading about COVID-19 is at large scale, and platforms are struggling to deal with it, especially given the lack of continuous moderation by social media platforms which are not warranted legally. This has given several blows to the effectiveness of lockdown given the people believed on certain misinformation such as cow urine is the cure of COVID-19, the religious congregation will protect from the disease etc, which led to people not take lockdown seriously. Understanding the struggles with automatic moderation of the content on the internet, the government can sooner than before enforcing its strict moderation policy which undermines the right to free speech.

The twenty-one days lockdown recently faltered when an exodus of the large number of migrant workers from urban cities like Delhi and Jaipur came in light. The Supreme Court’s division bench in a hearing on Tuesday, while reviewing the steps that the central government has taken to provide relief to the poor migrant workers during the lockdown, expressed serious concern over spread of fake news or misinformation regarding lockdown’s duration on social, electronic and print media causing the mass exodus of migrant worker from cities to their homes in villages. Read the SC’s order here. Centre in this light has sought direction from SC that no media stakeholders should publish COVID-19 news without ascertaining facts with government. Although, The constant and close monitoring has been held as not warranted by law as per various precedents of Indian courts.

Privacy, necessity and proportionality

While the right to free speech could be threatened in the future due to the present crisis, the right to privacy has already dealt with several blows. Considering the situation of emergency and lack of any comprehensive law protecting the privacy, the privacy of a number of citizens have been compromised. The health status of quarantined/ or infected is open to all as their homes are being marked and personal details are being made public on social media. Governments are openly surveilling quarantined people for ensuring the enforcement of quarantine and inviting bids from technology companies to procure technology that can make continuous surveillance more effective. In India, several governments are already tracking citizens by keeping a tab on their phones or utilizing geofencing. The crisis has legitimized much longing plans of the government to create an infrastructure which can assist in surveilling its citizens whenever the need arises. Given the opportunity, the Department of Science and Technology has invited proposals and has set up a task force for building surveillance, AI and IoT tools.

As several privacy activists have opinions against the government’s plan to keep track of infected persons. If litigation arises, the question is whether the present circumstances will meet the necessity and proportionality test in order to justify the violations of privacy?

Drones as part of law enforcement

Drones, in some cities, are being used for surveillance to ensure that the current curfew is not violated. Drones allow the police to surveill and document, in a low risk manner. In cities like Chennai, they are being used to disinfect areas. If all goes well in these difficult times of crisis, then expect that police will place more orders for drones going forward, and many tasks will be automated.

Telemedicine guidelines

One of the prime examples of the proposition that experience of COVID-19 crisis will pace up the policy-making with respect to regulate technology is the rollout of a set of guidelines for telemedicine or remote delivery of medical services. Telemedicine practice means that doctors will now be allowed to use information and communication technologies as per guidelines for the exchange of valid information for diagnosis and treatment of ailments with patients. In order to assure steady and quick medical services during the nationwide lockdown, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare finally sanctioned the guidelines that have been proposed ten years ago. Globally, telemedicine has emerged as a front-line weapon against the COVID 19 pandemic. The situation under present crisis motivated the government to provide the concept of telemedicine among masses explaining that the unnecessary exposure of people involved in the delivery of healthcare can be avoided using telemedicine, as patients can be screened remotely.